The national capital of Turkmenistan is flanked by the Kopetdag Mountains in the south and the Karakum Desert in the north.
Ashgabat is located in Ahal region, as well as the Kopetdag Mountains and the southern parts of the Karakum Desert.
Where the Kopetdag Mountains end, they flow into the lowlands, where medieval caravans traversed on their way from the Khorezmian cities in the north to Persian lands further south.
The northernmost region of Turkmenistan with its fertile riverine oases, has been populated since ancient times.
Bordering Dashoguz Region on the east, Lebap Region hosts the Amu Darya River’s flow through Turkmenistan and sees the start point of the 1500-kilometer long Karakum Canal.
The southernmost region of Mary, with its fertile Murgab riverine oases, has attracted people since ancient times.