About country

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Turkmenistan emerged as an independent state in 1991.

The national capital is Ashgabat. There are five administrative subdivisions, called velayat, or region, each with its own regional capital:
  • Ahal Velayat (Anau)
  • Balkan Velayat (Balkanabad)
  • Mary Velayat (Mary)
  • Dashoguz Velayat (Dashoguz)
  • Lebap Velayat (Turkmenabad)


Evidence of human life on the territory of present-day Turkmenistan started in the Paleolithic Era. Rock inscriptions can be seen in Jebel in the Krasnovodsk Peninsula, and various finds can be observed in the National Museum in Ashgabat. More extensive is the evidence of human settlements from the Neolithic and Eneolithic Eras: various sites in the foothills of the Kopetdag mountain range at Djeytun (near Ashgabat) and Anau (near Ashgabat) show evidence of early agricultural activity and village-like settlements.


Turkmen cuisine is varied, and includes both meat dishes and soups, and as well as plenty of fruits and vegetables. Bread is a must for every meal. A piece of fresh Turkmen flat round bread, churek, baked at home in clay ovens, is delicious in combination with any meal or snack.

Most cafes and restaurants cook up a combination of Turkmen and Russian dishes, and offer a large list of salads and side dishes (rice, fried potatoes, pasta, and mashed potatoes). None of the dishes are heavy on spices, but herbs such as parsley, coriander, basil and dill are frequently added.

Traditions. Arts and crafts

Turkmen are a Turkic-speaking people of nomadic origin (similar to the Kazakhs steppe nomads and the Kyrgyz mountain nomads, and differing from the Persian-speaking Tajiks, or the Turkic-speaking settled Uzbeks). While the majority live on the territory of Turkmenistan, significant numbers of Turkmen can also be found living in Iran, Afghanistan, and even Syria and Iraq.


A boring landscape? In actual fact Turkmenistan holds some of the most fascinating diversity of landscapes, from moving sand dunes and limestone cliffs, to lush river valleys and mountains created in the Jurassic period, as well as volcanoes, waterfalls, lakes and of course the Caspian Sea. Moreover, it has several nature reserves that are home to some unique threatened species of flora and fauna. Below you will find a description of some of the best known nature reserves, their protected flora and fauna species and other specifics. We have selected those reserves the immediately bordering areas of which are accessible to visitors (all nature reserves in Turkmenistan are protected areas, and not accessible for visitors, other than scientists with approval from the Ministry of Nature Protection).

Ahalteke horses

Experts say that nowhere in the world but in Turkmenistan nature and man’s efforts have succeeded in creating such a graceful, exceptional, tireless, sturdy, noble horse as the Akhal Teke. They are not only fast and of great endurance but also of peculiar royal beauty. These horses became one of the most striking illustrations of talent and mastery of Turkmen people. Turkmen are very proud of their horses.


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The climate is sharply continental with little rainfall during summer. Summer is dry. Precipitation is low - about 240 mm a year. With over 250 days of sunshine, Turkmenistan is often called the country of eternal sunshine.
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Here country the standard voltage is 220 V. The standard frequency is 50 Hz. The power sockets that are used are of type C/F. Your need for an adapter depends on the voltage, frequency and power plugs in the country you live in.
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International telephone calls can be made from most hotels, although prices are very high in comparison to public Call Centers. Another option is the Internet, which is available at most *** and **** hotels with in Ashgabat.
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Sun stroke and dehydration are the two main risks to your health in the Turkmen sunshine. A head cover and drinking sufficient fluids (water, juice, soda, tea, soup, etc) will largely protect you against these risks.
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The national currency is the Turkmen manat. One manat is divided into100 tenge. Notes come in 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 denominations, coins in 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50.

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Travel in Turkmenistan is entirely safe.
Turkmens adhere to a moderate form of Islam, and are respectful to people of other religions. Local traditions and customs continue to play an important role...
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Turkmenistan is known throughout the world for its holidays. here you will have the opportunity to see a variety of traditions of the people. Many social events will not make you bored. There really is a lot to see here!
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The national language spoken in Turkmenistan is Turkmen, which is a language from the family of Turkic languages. Widely used as a second language is Russian (a Slavic language). While the post-independ...
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